How To Repair Windows XP Installation

There are times when computer users experience problems with Windows or the system. Sometimes serious problems arise that cause the computer can not boot or system files damaged by viruses windows. If this happens there are usually two choices: Install or Repair Re-installation of Windows.

This time will be discussed how to repair (repair) installation of Windows Xp.
Repair technique has advantages such as the data in the system is still intact (the programs installed on your computer still remains). And it will also shorten the time, because if you reinstall the existing programs, including the driver must reinstall again. If the program is very much, it will spend a long time.

But even so, reinstall Windows Install will usually be "fresh" for our computer, especially if the previous drive in the format used, so that windows really like the new baby ..
Mistakes that often occur when you want to repair Windows XP installation is as appeared option / menu first installation, we chose Repair Using Recovery Console, so the show is an application / Command Prompt window. Indeed this feature can be used to fix some errors, but what we want is to improve the overall system files instead of Windows XP command prompt.

The steps to repair Windows XP Installation :
1. Previously running the steps below, make sure the computer BIOS is set to first boot sequence is CDROM and record the Serial Number of Windows XP.
2. Insert the CD Intallasi Windows XP, then restart (reboot) the computer.
3. When the words "Press any key to boot from CD", press any key on the keyboard.
4. Windows Setup will continue to load the files needed from the CD.

What Is Router ? - Basic Guide To Routing

Before we learn more about how to configure cisco router, we need to understand better about some basic rules routing. Also of course we must understand the numbering system IP, subnet, netmasking ... etc.

Example cases:
Host X à (Class B network ip en 128.1.xx)
Y à host (class B IP network id 128.1.xx)
Host Z à (class B IP network id 128.2.xx)
In the case above, the host of X and Y can communicate with the host directly, but both hosts X and Y can not communicate with host Z, because they have different network ID. How so Z can communicate with X and Y? use a router!

An example of using subnetting
Host P à subnet mask
Host Q à subnet mask
Host R à subnet mask
Well, when subnetting is used, then the two hosts are connected to the same network segment can communicate only if both the network id and subnetid his sesuai.Pada case above, P and Q can communicate with directly, R has the same network id with P and Q but has a different subnetidyang. Thus R can not communicate directly with P and Q. How so R can communicate with the P and Q? use a router!

So the router function, is easy to say, connect two different networks, precisely directs the best route to achieve the expected network.

In implementation, a router is often used to connect networks between institutions or companies that each have a network with different network id. Another example that is currently popular is when your company will be connected to the internet. Then the router will work stream of data packets from your company to other institutions via the Internet, of course, your network number would be calm with perushaaan you go.

If you simply connect the 2 pieces networks, in fact you can also use Windows NT based pc or linux. By providing 2 pieces and a network card settings, you actually have to make practical router. But of course with all its limitations.

More about routing
The data from the devices connected to the Internet is sent in a datagram, the data packet defined by the IP. Datagram has a destination address of data packets; Internet Protocol check this address to submit original datagram from the device to the destination device. If the datagram destination address is located a home network device, datagram directly delivered to the destination device. If the datagram destination address was not found in the same network, datagram forwarded to the appropriate router (the best available router).

IP router (usually called routers only) are devices that perform functions on the IP datagram to continue the network layer. Router has more than one network Default (network interface) and can forward datagram from one interface to another interface. For each datagram is received, the router checks if the datagram is addressed to him. If it is not addressed to the router, the datagram sent to the transport layer.

If the datagram not addressed to the router, which will examine is that it has a forwarding table to decide where the datagram should be addressed. Forwarding table is a table consisting of pairs of IP addresses (host address or network address), following the router address, and the interface where the datagram out.

If you do not find even a single line in the appropriate forwarding table with a destination address, the router will give a message to the sender that the address in question can not be achieved. This incident may be analogous with the message "return to sender" on mail. A router can also tell that he was not the best router to a destination, and suggested the use of other routers. With the three functions contained on this router, hosts on the Internet can connect to each other.

Static and Dynamic
In general, routing coordination mechanisms can be divided into two: static routing and dynamic routing. In static routing, the entries in the router's forwarding table is filled and removed manually, while the dynamic routing changes are made through routing protocols. Static routing is the simplest routing settings that can be done on computer networks. Using pure static routing in a network means to fill each entry in the forwarding table at each router in the network.

The use of static routing in a small network of course is not a problem; only a few entries that need to be filled in the forwarding table at each router. But you certainly can imagine what if must complete the forwarding table in each router that number is not small in a large network. Especially if you are assigned to fill the entries in the router on the Internet are very numerous and growing every day. Of trouble once!

Dynamic routing is the way used to release the obligation to fill these entries manually forwarding table. Routing protocol routers set so that it can communicate with each other and give each other routing information that can change the contents of a forwarding table, depending on the network. In this way, routers know the final state of the network and able to continue the datagram in the right direction.

Interior Routing Protocol
In the early 1980s, the Internet is limited to the ARPANET, Satnet (ARPANET extension that uses satellites), and several local networks connected by gateways. In its development, the Internet requires a hierarchical structure to anticipate that the network has become big. Internet and then broken up into several autonomous systems (AS) and now the Internet consists of thousands of U.S.. Every American has a mechanism for information exchange and routing own collection.

Protocol used to exchange routing information in the United States are classified as interior routing protocol (IRP). Routing information collected is then submitted to the U.S. in the form of reachability information. Reachability information issued by the United States contains information about networks that can be achieved through the U.S. and the U.S. is an indicator connected to the Internet. Submission of reachability information between the U.S. carried out using a protocol which has been classified as an exterior routing protocol (ERP).

IRP is used as standard in the Internet today is the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). In addition to these two protocols have also routing protocols that are proprietary but widely used in the Internet, the Internet Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) from Cisco Systems. IGRP protocol later expanded into the Extended IGRP (EIGRP). All of the above routing protocols use metrics as a basis for determining the best path can be taken by the datagram. Metrics associated with the "costs" contained in each link, which can be the throughput (data rate), delay, connection costs, and reliability of the link.

I. Routing Information Protocol
RIP (acronym, pronounced as rip) included in the distance-vector protocol, a protocol that is very simple. Distance-vector protocol is also called Bellman-Ford protocol, because it comes from the shortest distance calculation algorithm by RE Bellman, and described in the form of algorithms-first distributed by Ford and Fulkerson.

Each router with distance-vector protocol when it first started only know how routing to itself (local information) and did not know where he is a network topology. Then router sends the local information in the form of distance-vector to all the links that connect directly to him. Router that receives the routing information to calculate distance-vector, adding distance-vector with the link metric information received, and put it in a forwarding table entry if it is considered one of the best lines.

Routing information after the addition of metric and then sent back to the router interface, and is performed every certain time interval. And so on so that all routers in the network knows the network topology.Distance-vector protocols have a weakness that can be seen if there is a link in the network disconnected. Two possible failures that may occur is a bounce effect and count-until-no-till (counting to infinity). Bounce effects can occur in networks that use different metrics at least a link. Broken link can cause routing loops, so the datagram that passes through a particular link only circling between two routers (bounce) until the age (time to live) datagram is finished.

Counting-to-no-till occurs because the router was too late to inform you that a link is lost. This delay caused the router to send and receive distance-vector and calculate the metrics to the maximum limit of distance-vector metrics achieved. Link is found broken after the distance-vector reached the maximum metric. When calculating this metric routing loop occurs, even for a longer time than in case of bounce effect ..

RIP does not adopt the distance-vector protocol for granted, but by doing some additions to the algorithm for routing loops that occur can be minimized. RIP Split horizon is used to minimize the bounce effect. The principle used simple split horizon: if node A deliver datagram to the destination X through node B, then to B does not make sense to reach the goal X by A. Thus, A does not need to tell B that X can be accomplished B through A.

To prevent cases of counting-to-no-till, Triggered RIP Update method. RIP has a timer to know when the router must re-routing information. If there is a change in the network, while the timer has not run out, the router must still send the routing information as prompted by the changes (triggered updates). Thus, routers in the network can quickly find out the change and minimize the possibility of routing loops occur.

RIP is defined in RFC-1058 using the metrics between 1 and 15, while 16 considered as no-till. Route with distance-vector 16 is not included in the forwarding table. These limits prevent the 16 metric calculates the time-to-no-till is too long. RIP packets are normally sent every 30 seconds or sooner if there is triggered updates. If within 180 seconds a route is not updated, the router route delete it from the forwarding table. RIP does not have any information about the subnet route. Router must consider each route has received the same subnet with the router's subnet. Thus, RIP does not support Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM).

RIP version 2 (RIP-2 or RIPv2) attempt to generate some improvements over RIP, which is support for VLSM, using the authentication, the next hop information (next hop), and multicast. Adding subnet mask information in each route to make the router does not have to assume that the route has the same subnet mask with the subnet mask is used to him.

RIP-2 also uses authentication in order to know which routing information that can be trusted. Authentication is required at the routing protocols to make the protocol becomes more secure. RIP-1 does not use authentication so that people can give false routing information. Next hop information in RIP-2 is used by routers to inform a route but the route to reach does not pass through routers that provide information, but the other router. The following usage usually hop on the border between the United States.

RIP-1 uses a broadcast address to send routing information. As a result, this packet is received by all hosts within that subnet and add the host's workload. RIP-2 can send multicast packets using the IP, so not all hosts need to receive and process the routing information. Only routers that use RIP-2 that receives the routing information without the need to compromise other hosts in the subnet.

RIP is a simple routing protocol, and this is the reason why RIP is implemented in most networks. Set the RIP routing is not complicated to use and gives results quite acceptable, especially if rare network link failures. However, for large networks and complex, RIP may not be enough. In this case, the RIP routing calculation often takes a long time, and lead to routing loops. For such networks, most computer network specialist to use the protocol included in the link-state group.

II. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Link-state technology developed in the ARPAnet to produce a distributed protocol is much better than distance-vector protocol. Instead of exchanging distance (distance) to the destination, each router in the network has a network map that can be updated quickly after any topology change. This map is used to calculate the route which is more accurate than using distance-vector protocol. These technological developments eventually led to a protocol Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) which was developed by the IETF for use on the Internet. Even now the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) has been recommended as a substitute for OSPF, RIP.

The principle of link-state routing is very simple. As an alternative route to calculate the "best" distributed by, all routers have a network map and count all the best route from the map. Network maps are stored in a database and each record in the database specifies a link in the network. The records were sent by a router that is connected directly with each link.

Because each router need to have a network map that illustrates the last condition is a complete network topology, any changes in the network must be followed by changes in the data base link-state located at each router. Link status change is detected by the router will change the database link-state router, then the router sends these changes to other routers.

Protocol used to transmit these changes must be fast and reliable. This can be achieved by flooding protocol. In the flooding protocol, the message sent is a change from the database and the message sequence number. By simply sending database changes, the time required for sending and processing messages sent fewer dibandingdengan entire data base. Message sequence number is needed to determine whether the message is received more recent than that contained in the database. This serial number handy in case of broken links to be connected again.
At the end, and there is a link to a separate network, the two parts of the database into a different network.

When the link is broken back to life, the data base on all routers must be identified. This data base will not return the same as sending a link-state messages only. The process of data base on the equation of the neighboring router is called the turn adjacency. Two routers adjacent neighborhood called when the database link-state both have the same. In this process the two routers are not exchanging data base because it will take a long time.

The process consists of adjacency bring fasa.Fasa first two, both routers exchange database description is a summary of the database that each router. Each router then compares the description database received by the data base has. In the second phase, each router is asking neighbors to send the records of different databases, ie if the router has no such record, or record serial number owned less than that delivered by the description of the data base. After this process, the router and update multiple records are then sent to other routers via flooding protocol.

Link-state protocol is better than distance-vector protocol is caused by several things: the time required to converge faster, and more importantly, this protocol does not produce routing loops. This protocol supports the use of several metrics at once. Throughput, delay, cost, and reliability are metrics commonly used in the network. In addition, this protocol can also produce many paths to a destination. Suppose that router A has two lines with the same metrics to host B. Protocol can enter into both of these pathways in a forwarding table so that the router is able to divide the load between the two path.

Draft OSPF uses link-state protocols with some additional functions. The functions of added include support multi-access networks, such as X.25 and Ethernet, and divide large networks becoming some areas.

Has been described above that each router in link-state protocols necessary to establish neighbor adjacency with the router. On multi-access network, each router's neighbors can be more than one. In these circumstances, every router in the network needs to form adjacency with all other routers, and is inefficient. OSPF adjacency streamline this by introducing the concept of designated routers and backup designated routers. All routers need only adjacent to the designated router, so that only the designated router is adjacent to all other routers. Designated backup router will take over the designated router fails.

The first step in a multi-access network is to select the designated router and backup. This election is inserted into the Hello protocol, the OSPF protocol to find neighbors routers in each link. After the election, then routers to form adjacency with the designated router and backup. Each network changes, the router sends a message using the flooding protocol to the designated router, and the designated router that sends the message to other routers in the link.

Designated router backup also listen to the messages sent to the designated router. If the designated router fails, the backup designated router then becomes the new designated and elected a new backup router. Because the new designated router has been adjacent to the other routers, no longer necessary database identification process that requires such a long time.

In a large network would need a large database to store all the network topology. This leads to a memory requirement larger router and route calculation time is longer. To anticipate this, OSPF uses the concept of area and backbone. Network is divided into several areas that are connected to the backbone. Each area is considered as a separate network and routers in it only needs to have a network topology map in that area. Routers located at the border between the area just send a summary of the links contained in the area and did not send a broadcast topology to other areas. Thus, the calculation becomes much simpler route.

How To Set Up Proxies In Your Browser - Anonymous Browsing

How to set up proxies in your browser, (!!!!be anonymous and make the passes last longer...!!!!!!
In Internet Explorer
Click "Tools", then "Internet Options", the in the "connections" Tab, click the "LAN Setup" Button in the bottom. There is a "Proxy Servers", tick the "Use a proxy....." and then enter the proxy in the bigger textbox and the port (the part that comes after the ":") in the smaller textbox. Hit okay, and then go to
to see if the proxy is now your IP.
Click "Files", then "Preferences", then "Network", then click the button "Proxy Servers", tick "HTTP", fill in with the proxy:port, click okay and that's it! Don't forget to check with

In Firefox
Tools -> Options
Then click the General Icon
Then the "Connection Settings..." button
Then click the "manually configure proxies" radio button, and enter the proxy address and port in the HTTP Proxy area.
Don't forget to check with


What Is DirectX? - DirectX Explained

Ever wondered just what that enigmatic name means?

Gaming and multimedia applications are some of the most satisfying programs you can get for your PC, but getting them to run properly isn’t always as easy as it could be. First, the PC architecture was never designed as a gaming platform. Second, the wide-ranging nature of the PC means that one person’s machine can be different from another. While games consoles all contain the same hardware, PCs don’t: the massive range of difference can make gaming a headache.

To alleviate as much of the pain as possible, Microsoft needed to introduce a common standard which all games and multimedia applications could follow – a common interface between the OS and whatever hardware is installed in the PC, if you like. This common interface is DirectX, something which can be the source of much confusion.

DirectX is an interface designed to make certain programming tasks much easier, for both the game developer and the rest of us who just want to sit down and play the latest blockbuster. Before we can explain what DirectX is and how it works though, we need a little history lesson.

DirectX history
Any game needs to perform certain tasks again and again. It needs to watch for your input from mouse, joystick or keyboard, and it needs to be able to display screen images and play sounds or music. That’s pretty much any game at the most simplistic level.

Imagine how incredibly complex this was for programmers developing on the early pre-Windows PC architecture, then. Each programmer needed to develop their own way of reading the keyboard or detecting whether a joystick was even attached, let alone being used to play the game. Specific routines were needed even to display the simplest of images on the screen or play a simple sound.

Essentially, the game programmers were talking directly to your PC’s hardware at a fundamental level. When Microsoft introduced Windows, it was imperative for the stability and success of the PC platform that things were made easier for both the developer and the player. After all, who would bother writing games for a machine when they had to reinvent the wheel every time they began work on a new game? Microsoft’s idea was simple: stop programmers talking directly to the hardware, and build a common toolkit which they could use instead. DirectX was born.

How it works
At the most basic level, DirectX is an interface between the hardware in your PC and Windows itself, part of the Windows API or Application Programming Interface. Let’s look at a practical example. When a game developer wants to play a sound file, it’s simply a case of using the correct library function. When the game runs, this calls the DirectX API, which in turn plays the sound file. The developer doesn’t need to know what type of sound card he’s dealing with, what it’s capable of, or how to talk to it. Microsoft has provided DirectX, and the sound card manufacturer has provided a DirectX-capable driver. He asks for the sound to be played, and it is – whichever machine it runs on.

From our point of view as gamers, DirectX also makes things incredibly easy – at least in theory. You install a new sound card in place of your old one, and it comes with a DirectX driver. Next time you play your favourite game you can still hear sounds and music, and you haven’t had to make any complex configuration changes.

Originally, DirectX began life as a simple toolkit: early hardware was limited and only the most basic graphical functions were required. As hardware and software has evolved in complexity, so has DirectX. It’s now much more than a graphical toolkit, and the term has come to encompass a massive selection of routines which deal with all sorts of hardware communication. For example, the DirectInput routines can deal with all sorts of input devices, from simple two-button mice to complex flight joysticks. Other parts include DirectSound for audio devices and DirectPlay provides a toolkit for online or multiplayer gaming.

DirectX versions
The current version of DirectX at time of writing is DirectX 9.0. This runs on all versions of Windows from Windows 98 up to and including Windows Server 2003 along with every revision in between. It doesn’t run on Windows 95 though: if you have a machine with Windows 95 installed, you’re stuck with the older and less capable 8.0a. Windows NT 4 also requires a specific version – in this case, it’s DirectX 3.0a.

With so many versions of DirectX available over the years, it becomes difficult to keep track of which version you need. In all but the most rare cases, all versions of DirectX are backwardly compatible – games which say they require DirectX 7 will happily run with more recent versions, but not with older copies. Many current titles explicitly state that they require DirectX 9, and won’t run without the latest version installed. This is because they make use of new features introduced with this version, although it has been known for lazy developers to specify the very latest version as a requirement when the game in question doesn’t use any of the new enhancements. Generally speaking though, if a title is version locked like this, you will need to upgrade before you can play. Improvements to the core DirectX code mean you may even see improvements in many titles when you upgrade to the latest build of DirectX. Downloading and installing DirectX need not be complex, either.

Upgrading DirectX
All available versions of Windows come with DirectX in one form or another as a core system component which cannot be removed, so you should always have at least a basic implementation of the system installed on your PC. However, many new games require the very latest version before they work properly, or even at all.

Generally, the best place to install the latest version of DirectX from is the dedicated section of the Microsoft Web site, which is found at As we went to press, the most recent build available for general download was DirectX 9.0b. You can download either a simple installer which will in turn download the components your system requires as it installs, or download the complete distribution package in one go for later offline installation.

Another good source for DirectX is games themselves. If a game requires a specific version, it’ll be on the installation CD and may even be installed automatically by the game’s installer itself. You won’t find it on magazine cover discs though, thanks to Microsoft’s licensing terms.

Diagnosing problems
Diagnosing problems with a DirectX installation can be problematic, especially if you don’t know which one of the many components is causing your newly purchased game to fall over. Thankfully, Microsoft provides a useful utility called the DirectX Diagnostic Tool, although this isn’t made obvious. You won’t find this tool in the Start Menu with any version of Windows, and each tends to install it in a different place.

The easiest way to use it is to open the Start Menu’s Run dialog, type in dxdiag and then click OK. When the application first loads, it takes a few seconds to interrogate your DirectX installation and find any problems. First, the DirectX Files tab displays version information on each one of the files your installation uses. The Notes section at the bottom is worth checking, as missing or corrupted files will be flagged here.

The tabs marked Display, Sound, Music, Input and Network all relate to specific areas of DirectX, and all but the Input tab provide tools to test the correct functioning on your hardware. Finally, the More Help tab provides a useful way to start the DirectX Troubleshooter, Microsoft’s simple linear problem solving tool for many common DirectX issues.

Bit Torrent Tutorials

The first things you need to know about using Bit Torrent:
-- Bit Torrent is aimed at broadband users (or any connection better than dialup).
-- Sharing is highly appreciated, and sharing is what keeps bit torrent alive.
-- A bit torrent file (*.torrent) contains information about the piece structure of the download (more on this later)
-- The method of downloading is not your conventional type of download. Since downloads do not come in as one
big chunk, you are able to download from many people at once, increasing your download speeds. There may be
100 "pieces" to a file, or 20,000+ pieces, all depending on what you're downloading. Pieces are usually small (under 200kb)
-- The speeds are based upon people sharing as they download, and seeders. Seeders are people who constantly
share in order to keep torrents alive. Usually seeders are on fast connections (10mb or higher).

In this tutorial, I will be describing it all using a bit torrent client called Azureus. This client is used to decode the .torrent files into a useable format to download from other peers. From here on out, I will refer to Bit Torrent as BT.

Which BT client you use, is purely up to you. I have tried them all, and my personal favorite is Azureus for many reasons. A big problem with most BT clients out there, is that they are extremely CPU intensive, usually using 100% of your cpu power during the whole process. This is the number one reason I use Azureus. Another, is a recently released plug-in that enables you to browse all current files listed on (the #1 source for torrent downloads).

Before you use the plug-in, take a look at /, and browse the files. Hold your mouse over the links, and you'll notice every file ends in .torrent. This is the BT file extension. Usually, .torrent files are very small, under 200kb. They contain a wealth of information about the file you want to download. A .torrent file can contain just 1 single file, or a a directory full of files and more directories. But regardless, every download is split up into hundreds or thousands of pieces. The pieces make it much easier to download at higher speeds. Back to Look at the columns:

Added | Name | Filesize | Seeds | DLs (and a few more which aren't very useful.)

I'll break this down.
Added: Self explanitory, its the date the torrent was added.
Name: Also self explanitory.
Filesize: Duh
Seeds: This is how many people are strictly UPLOADING, or sharing. These people are the ones that keep .torrent files alive. By "alive", I mean, if there's no one sharing the .torrent file, no one can download.
DLs: This is how many people currently downloading that particular torrent. They also help keep the torrent alive as they share while they download.

It's always best to download using a torrent that has a decent amount of seeders and downloaders, this way you can be assured there's a good chance your download will finish. The more the better.

Now that you should understand how torrent files work, and how to use them, on to Azureus!
First, get JAVA! You need this to run Azureus, as java is what powers it. Get Java here: /
Next, get Azureus at: /
Next, get the Suprnovalister plugin from /

Install Java JRE before you do ANYTHING.

Install Azureus, and then in the installation folder, create 2 more folders. ./Plugins/suprnovalister (For example, if you installed Azureus to C:\PROGRAM FILES\AZUREUS, create C:\PROGRAM FILES\AZUREUS\PLUGINS\SUPRNOVALISTER). Next, put the suprnovalister.jar file that you downloaded, in that folder.

Load up Azureus, and if you want, go through the settings and personalize it.

The tab labeled "My Torrents" is the section of Azureus you need the most often. That lists all your transfers, uploads and downloads. It shows every bit of information you could possibly want to know about torrents you download.

In the menu bar, go to View > Plugins > Suprnova Lister. This will open up a new tab in Azureus. Click on "Update Mirror". This will get a mirror site of containing all current torrent files available. Once a mirror is grabbed, choose a category from the drop-down box to the left and click "Update". Wah-lah, all the available downloads appear in the main chart above. Just double click a download you want, and bang its starting to download. Open the "My Torrents" tab again to view and make sure your download started.

After your download has finished, be nice, and leave the torrent transferring. So people can get pieces of the file from you, just as you got pieces from other people.

Alternatively, if you don't want to use the plugin... you can just head to and download files to any folder. Then go to File > Open > .torrent File in Azureus.

This should about wrap it up for the Bit Torrent Tutorial. If you guys think of anything I should add, or whatnot, just let me know and I'll check into it.

How To Installing IIS On Windows Xp Pro

If you are running Windows XP Professional on your computer you can install Microsoft's web server, Internet Information Server 5.1 (IIS) for free from the Windows XP Pro installation CD and configure it to run on your system by following the instructions below: -

1. Place the Windows XP Professional CD-Rom into your CD-Rom Drive.

2. Open 'Add/Remove Windows Components' found in 'Add/Remove Programs' in the 'Control Panel'.

3. Place a tick in the check box for 'Internet Information Services (IIS)' leaving all the default installation settings intact.

4. Once IIS is installed on your machine you can view your home page in a web browser by typing 'http://localhost' (you can substitute 'localhost' for the name of your computer) into the address bar of your web browser. If you have not placed your web site into the default directory you should now be looking at the IIS documentation.

5. If you are not sure of the name of your computer right-click on the 'My Computer' icon on your desktop, select 'Properties' from the shortcut menu, and click on the 'Computer Name' tab.

6. Your default web directory to place your web site in is 'C:\Inetpub\wwwroot', but if you don't want to over write the IIS documentation found in this directory you can set up your own virtual directory through the 'Internet Information Services' console.

7. The 'Internet Information Services' console can be found in the 'Administration Tools' in the 'Control Panel' under 'Performance and Maintenance', if you do not have the control panel in Classic View.

8. Double-click on the 'Internet Information Services' icon.

9. Once the 'Internet Information Services' console is open you will see any IIS web services you have running on your machine including the SMTP server and FTP server, if you chose to install them with IIS.

10. To add a new virtual directory right click on 'Default Web Site' and select 'New', followed by 'Virtual Directory', from the drop down list.

11. Next you will see the 'Virtual Directory Creation Wizard' from the first screen click the 'next' button.

12. You will then be asked to type in an 'Alias' by which you will access the virtual directory from your web browser (this is the name you will type into your web browser after 'localhost' to view any web pages you place in the directory).

13. Next you will see a 'Browse...' button, click on this to select the directory your web site pages are in on your computer, after which click on the 'next' button to continue.

14. On the final part of the wizard you will see a series of boxes, if you are not worried about security then select them all, if you are and want to run ASP scripts then check the first two, followed by the 'next' button.

15. Once the virtual directory is created you can view the web pages in the folder by typing 'http://localhost/aliasName' (where 'aliasName' is, place the alias you called the virtual directory) into the address bar of your web browser (you can substitute 'localhost' for the name of your computer if you wish).

How To Increase Windows XP Folder Settings

Windows remembers 400 folder settings. When that number is reached some settings aren't retained any longer. You can change this to 8000 by adding this edit to the registry.

1. Copy the following (everything in the box) into notepdad.

Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00


"BagMRU Size"=dword:00001f40

"BagMRU Size"=dword:00001f40


2. Save the file as folder8000.reg
3. Double click the file to import into your registry.

How To Change Windows XP Home to Windows XP Pro

We can’t vouch for this hack, because we are too lazy to try it (and we never, ever violate copyrights or EULAs), but kind reader Martin explains the process for turning an Windows XP Home install disc to a Windows XP Pro disc after the jump.

It sounds pretty simple to do (just some registry changes), but you can’t install Service Pack 2, so you might try to slipstream in the changes to your modified install disc (if that’s even possible).

Alternately, buy XP Pro, or get a Mac.

yes indeed, you can’t change an installed Windows but only your Installation CD (or even a recovery CD in case the manufacturer had not left out important parts)

Here’s the detailed breakdown you asked for.

1. Copy the root directory and the i386 directory of the WindowsXP CD
to your harddisk
2. Extract the Bootsector of your WindowsXP CD
3. Change 2 Bytes in i386\ :
a) Open Regedit
c) Menu: File -> Load Structure -> i386\
d) Assign an arbitrary name to the imported structure e.g. “Homekey”
e) Goto HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Homekey\ControlSet001\Services\setupdd
f) edit the binary key “default” and change “01” to “00” and “02” to “00”
g) Highlight “Homekey” and select menu: File -> unload structure
4. Burn your new XP Pro CD
5. Install WindowsXP as usual. Your XP Home Key will work.

How To Backup PS2 Games

Okay, these are some methods to backup PS2 titles and Xbox titles, in order to play a backup you need a modchip of some sort, I have also included a tutorial on boot methods. Follow any one of these instructions to fit your needs. You can tell what format the PS2 title is by looking at the written side of the disc, DVD's are Silver and CD's are Purple. The DVD backup methods here consist of reading the image to the hard drive then burning it to the media for an easier backup, this depends on your hardware and it?s setup. I say that because the proper setup would be to have the Reader and Writer on separate IDE cables. This allows no cross information when doing Disc to Disc/On the fly copying. But, since most people would not know how to check or fix this, I suggest reading the image to your Hard Drive and then burning from there. *A little useful trick*, If the DVD backup "image" is small enough in size you can fit it onto a CD-R (80 minute or larger if need be) instead of using a more expensive DVD-R. I have done this succesfully using Prassi and the first tutorial for it below. In addition a DVD Movie backup will play on a PS2/Xbox without a chip. As I get more info I will update.

PS1/PS2 CD backup tutorials:

Using CloneCD (v4.x.xx) for PS1/PS2

1. Start CloneCD
2. Select "Copy CD"
3. Select your Reader, press Next
4. Select "Game CD", press Next
5. Select/Deselect your options here (on the fly, cue or delete) then press Next
6. Select your Writer, press Next
7. Select your burn speed and "Game CD"
8. Press "OK" to begin

Using Alcohol 120% for PS1/PS2

1. Start Alcohol 120%
2. Select ?Copy Wizard?
3. Select your Reader & Read Speed
4. Select or Deselect ?Copy current disc on the fly?
5. For Datatype select which console PS1 or PS2, press Next
6. Select your Image location and Name for it, press Next
7. Select you Writer, Write Speed and anything else you feel you might need
8. Make sure the Datatype selected is the same you chose above
9. Press Start to begin

PS2 DVD backup tutorials

Using Prassi

1. Start Primo
2. Select "go to full application"
3. Right Click the drive that has your original in it
4. Select "build global image" and choose a path for the image (preferably on an NTFS opsys)
5. After the image is extracted go to next step
6. Choose the 3rd disc icon from the left *or* click file, new job, Global/Other Image
7. Then just burn the .gi (global image) of the game

This next way has one less step which saves some time because once you press record it does everything by itself (if you have a DVD reader and DVD Writer)

1. Start Primo
2. Use the "PrimoDVD Starter" (it's easier, and less confusing)
3. Choose "disc copy"
4. Select your Reader and Also your Writer
5. Select "make a temp image on HD..."
6. Select your burn speed and then record to begin

Using Nero

1. Start Nero, Use the Wizard (for easy use)
2. Select "DVD" then select Next
3. Select "Copy a DVD" then select Next
4. Select your source drive
5. Check OFF "copy on the fly" then select next
6. Select your write speed
7. Select either "Test", "Test and Burn" or "Burn"
8. Press "Burn" to begin

This next way is without the Wizard

1. Start Nero, and select "File" then "New..."
2. On upper left side of the window from the drop down menu select "DVD"
3. Select "DVD Copy" Icon
4. Select "Copy options" tab
5. Check OFF "copy on the fly"
6. Select source drive and read speed
7. If needed Select "Image" tab to choose image directory and select/deselect "delete image..."
8. Select "Burn" tab and choose your settings
9. Press "Copy" to begin

Using Alcohol 120%

1. Start Alcohol 120%
2. Select ?Copy Wizard?
3. Select your Reader
4. For ?Separate Image file every:? choose ?Never Separate?
5. Select or Deselect ?Copy current disc on the fly?, press Next
6. Select your Image location and Name for it, press Next
7. Select you Writer, Write Speed and anything else you feel you might need
8. Select or Deselect ?Delete image file after recording?
9. Press Start to begin

XBOX backup tutorials

Xbox original games are burned from the outside in. The only way to backup a title is to have a modchip like X-exuter (best), Enigma, or Xodus/Matrix. You also have to flash the bios and have a CD program inserted or installed into the X-Box named EVO-X (this allows you to assign the X-Box an IP address). The game has to be stored on the X-Box's HD, this allows you to file transfer the title to your PC using an ftp program like FlaxhFXP (best) or similar. From there you use a burning application to make the backup. Some applications allows you to "drag & drop" right from the Xbox or you can build an ISO of the image then burn to CD-R/W or DVD-R/W backup. (I will update this to show steps as soon as I have a minute)

Modded PS2 with or without Action Replay/GameShark CD & DVD backup booting methods

PS2 with NeoKey/Sbox & AR/GS, PS1 CD backup booting

1. Turn on PS2 and NeoKey/Sbox
2. Press Eject
3. Insert PS1 CD backup
4. Press reset
5. PS2 tray will close
6. PS1 CD backup will now boot

PS2 with NeoKey/Sbox & AR/GS, PS2 CD backup booting

1. Have AR/GS dongle in a memory card slot
2. Power on your PS2
3. Insert AR/GS disc
4. At the AR/GS menu, select Start Game, With/Without codes
5. Eject and swap to your PS2 CD backup and press X.
6. Screen will change and game will now boot

* Note - Neokey will not play DVD-R!
* Note - Old versions of AR2/GS2 you might need to press R1+O instead of X to boot games

PS2 with Neo 2.2, PS1 CD backup booting

1. Turn on PS2
2. Press Eject
3. Insert PS1 CD backup
4. Press reset
5. PS2 tray will close
6. PS1 CD backup will now boot

PS2 with Neo 2.2 & AR/GS, PS2 CD backup booting

1. Have AR/GS dongle in a memory card slot
2. Power on your PS2
3. Insert AR/GS disc
4. At the AR/GS menu, select Start Game, With/Without codes
5. Eject and swap to your PS2 CD backup and press X.
6. Screen will change and game will now boot

PS2 with Neo 2.2 & AR/GS, PS2 DVD backup booting

1. Have AR/GS dongle in a memory card slot
2. Power on your PS2
3. Insert AR/GS disc, close tray
4. Power off your PS2, wait a few seconds
5. Press and Hold Reset button to load AR/GS
6. At the AR2/GS2 menu, press EJECT while still holding Reset
7. Swap AR/GS disc for an Original-TOC-DVD* and wait 10 seconds
8. Select "AR/GS Codes"
9. Highlight "Add new code" and press X to get to the next screen
10. Press X three times. You will see "Updating code list please wait" each time)
11. Press "Start" on controller
12. Select "Without codes", press X
13. Then Press X again, and immediately release the Reset button, you will see "Updating code list please wait"
14. The PS2 tray will eject allowing you to swap Original-TOC-DVD* for DVD backup and then close on it?s own
15. Screen will change and game will now boot

* Note - "Original-TOC-DVD" is an original DVD that is a larger file size than the backup
* Note ? For a shortcut make a few ?Add new codes? and after step 8 just highlight one of them and press square to delete it, then proceed on with step 11

PS2 with Messiah

1. PSX Backups will boot directly.
2. PS2 CD-R Backups will boot directly.
3. PS2 Unpatched EA backups will boot directly.
4. PS2 DVD-R Backups will boot directly.

PS2 with Magic 2, 3 or 3.5

1. PSX Backups will boot directly.
2. PS2 CD-R Backups will boot directly.
3. PS2 Unpatched EA backups will boot directly.
4. PS2 DVD-R Backups will boot directly.

Ps2 with Apple Mod

1. PSX Backups will boot directly.
2. PS2 CD-R Backups will boot directly.
3. PS2 Unpatched EA backups will boot directly.
4. PS2 DVD-R Backups will boot directly

A Basic Guide To The Internet

The Internet is a computer network made up of thousands of networks worldwide. No one knows exactly how many computers are connected to the Internet. It is certain, however, that these number in the millions.

No one is in charge of the Internet. There are organizations which develop technical aspects of this network and set standards for creating applications on it, but no governing body is in control. The Internet backbone, through which Internet traffic flows, is owned by private companies.

All computers on the Internet communicate with one another using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol suite, abbreviated to TCP/IP. Computers on the Internet use a client/server architecture. This means that the remote server machine provides files and services to the user's local client machine. Software can be installed on a client computer to take advantage of the latest access technology.

An Internet user has access to a wide variety of services: electronic mail, file transfer, vast information resources, interest group membership, interactive collaboration, multimedia displays, real-time broadcasting, shopping opportunities, breaking news, and much more.

The Internet consists primarily of a variety of access protocols. Many of these protocols feature programs that allow users to search for and retrieve material made available by the protocol.


The World Wide Web (abbreviated as the Web or WWW) is a system of Internet servers that supports hypertext to access several Internet protocols on a single interface. Almost every protocol type available on the Internet is accessible on the Web. This includes e-mail, FTP, Telnet, and Usenet News. In addition to these, the World Wide Web has its own protocol: HyperText Transfer Protocol, or HTTP. These protocols will be explained later in this document.

The World Wide Web provides a single interface for accessing all these protocols. This creates a convenient and user-friendly environment. It is no longer necessary to be conversant in these protocols within separate, command-level environments. The Web gathers together these protocols into a single system. Because of this feature, and because of the Web's ability to work with multimedia and advanced programming languages, the Web is the fastest-growing component of the Internet.

The operation of the Web relies primarily on hypertext as its means of information retrieval. HyperText is a document containing words that connect to other documents. These words are called links and are selectable by the user. A single hypertext document can contain links to many documents. In the context of the Web, words or graphics may serve as links to other documents, images, video, and sound. Links may or may not follow a logical path, as each connection is programmed by the creator of the source document. Overall, the Web contains a complex virtual web of connections among a vast number of documents, graphics, videos, and sounds.

Producing hypertext for the Web is accomplished by creating documents with a language called HyperText Markup Language, or HTML. With HTML, tags are placed within the text to accomplish document formatting, visual features such as font size, italics and bold, and the creation of hypertext links. Graphics and multimedia may also be incorporated into an HTML document. HTML is an evolving language, with new tags being added as each upgrade of the language is developed and released. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), led by Web founder Tim Berners-Lee, coordinates the efforts of standardizing HTML. The W3C now calls the language XHTML and considers it to be an application of the XML language standard.

The World Wide Web consists of files, called pages or home pages, containing links to documents and resources throughout the Internet.

The Web provides a vast array of experiences including multimedia presentations, real-time collaboration, interactive pages, radio and television broadcasts, and the automatic "push" of information to a client computer. Programming languages such as Java, JavaScript, Visual Basic, Cold Fusion and XML are extending the capabilities of the Web. A growing amount of information on the Web is served dynamically from content stored in databases. The Web is therefore not a fixed entity, but one that is in a constant state of development and flux.

For more complete information about the World Wide Web, see Understanding The World Wide Web.


Electronic mail, or e-mail, allows computer users locally and worldwide to exchange messages. Each user of e-mail has a mailbox address to which messages are sent. Messages sent through e-mail can arrive within a matter of seconds.

A powerful aspect of e-mail is the option to send electronic files to a person's e-mail address. Non-ASCII files, known as binary files, may be attached to e-mail messages. These files are referred to as MIME attachments.MIME stands for Multimedia Internet Mail Extension, and was developed to help e-mail software handle a variety of file types. For example, a document created in Microsoft Word can be attached to an e-mail message and retrieved by the recipient with the appropriate e-mail program. Many e-mail programs, including Eudora, Netscape Messenger, and Microsoft Outlook, offer the ability to read files written in HTML, which is itself a MIME type.


Telnet is a program that allows you to log into computers on the Internet and use online databases, library catalogs, chat services, and more. There are no graphics in Telnet sessions, just text. To Telnet to a computer, you must know its address. This can consist of words ( or numbers ( Some services require you to connect to a specific port on the remote computer. In this case, type the port number after the Internet address. Example: telnet 185.

Telnet is available on the World Wide Web. Probably the most common Web-based resources available through Telnet have been library catalogs, though most catalogs have since migrated to the Web. A link to a Telnet resource may look like any other link, but it will launch a Telnet session to make the connection. A Telnet program must be installed on your local computer and configured to your Web browser in order to work.

With the increasing popularity of the Web, Telnet has become less frequently used as a means of access to information on the Internet.


FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. This is both a program and the method used to transfer files between computers. Anonymous FTP is an option that allows users to transfer files from thousands of host computers on the Internet to their personal computer account. FTP sites contain books, articles, software, games, images, sounds, multimedia, course work, data sets, and more.

If your computer is directly connected to the Internet via an Ethernet cable, you can use one of several PC software programs, such as WS_FTP for Windows, to conduct a file transfer.

FTP transfers can be performed on the World Wide Web without the need for special software. In this case, the Web browser will suffice. Whenever you download software from a Web site to your local machine, you are using FTP. You can also retrieve FTP files via search engines such as FtpFind, located at / This option is easiest because you do not need to know FTP program commands.


One of the benefits of the Internet is the opportunity it offers to people worldwide to communicate via e-mail. The Internet is home to a large community of individuals who carry out active discussions organized around topic-oriented forums distributed by e-mail. These are administered by software programs. Probably the most common program is the listserv.

A great variety of topics are covered by listservs, many of them academic in nature. When you subscribe to a listserv, messages from other subscribers are automatically sent to your electronic mailbox. You subscribe to a listserv by sending an e-mail message to a computer program called a listserver. Listservers are located on computer networks throughout the world. This program handles subscription information and distributes messages to and from subscribers. You must have a e-mail account to participate in a listserv discussion group. Visit at / to see an example of a site that offers a searchablecollection of e-mail discussion groups.

Majordomo and Listproc are two other programs that administer e-mail discussion groups. The commands for subscribing to and managing your list memberships are similar to those of listserv.


Usenet News is a global electronic bulletin board system in which millions of computer users exchange information on a vast range of topics. The major difference between Usenet News and e-mail discussion groups is the fact that Usenet messages are stored on central computers, and users must connect to these computers to read or download the messages posted to these groups. This is distinct from e-mail distribution, in which messages arrive in the electronic mailboxes of each list member.

Usenet itself is a set of machines that exchanges messages, or articles, from Usenet discussion forums, called newsgroups. Usenet administrators control their own sites, and decide which (if any) newsgroups to sponsor and which remote newsgroups to allow into the system.

There are thousands of Usenet newsgroups in existence. While many are academic in nature, numerous newsgroups are organized around recreational topics. Much serious computer-related work takes place in Usenet discussions. A small number of e-mail discussion groups also exist as Usenet newsgroups.

The Usenet newsfeed can be read by a variety of newsreader software programs. For example, the Netscape suite comes with a newsreader program called Messenger. Newsreaders are also available as standalone products.


FAQ stands for Frequently Asked Questions. These are periodic postings to Usenet newsgroups that contain a wealth of information related to the topic of the newsgroup. Many FAQs are quite extensive. FAQs are available by subscribing to individual Usenet newsgroups. A Web-based collection of FAQ resources has been collected by The Internet FAQ Consortium and is available at /

RFC stands for Request for Comments. These are documents created by and distributed to the Internet community to help define the nuts and bolts of the Internet. They contain both technical specifications and general information.

FYI stands for For Your Information. These notes are a subset of RFCs and contain information of interest to new Internet users.

Links to indexes of all three of these information resources are available on the University Libraries Web site at /


Chat programs allow users on the Internet to communicate with each other by typing in real time. They are sometimes included as a feature of a Web site, where users can log into the "chat room" to exchange comments and information about the topics addressed on the site. Chat may take other, more wide-ranging forms. For example, America Online is well known for sponsoring a number of topical chat rooms.

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a service through which participants can communicate to each other on hundreds of channels. These channels are usually based on specific topics. While many topics are frivolous, substantive conversations are also taking place. To access IRC, you must use an IRC software program.

A variation of chat is the phenomenon of instant messenging. With instant messenging, a user on the Web can contact another user currently logged in and type a conversation. Most famous is America Online's Instant Messenger. ICQ, MSN and Yahoo are other commonly-used chat programs.

Other types of real-time communication are addressed in the tutorial Understanding the World Wide Web.


MUD stands for Multi User Dimension. MUDs, and their variations listed above, are multi-user virtual reality games based on simulated worlds. Traditionally text based, graphical MUDs now exist. There are MUDs of all kinds on the Internet, and many can be joined free of charge. For more information, read one of the FAQs devoted to MUDs available at the FAQ site at

How To Recover Most Of Scratched CD Data Discs

First some tools will be needed:

1. Windows XP/2000
2. UltraISO
3. Alcohol 120%
3. Small piece of cotton
4. Dry cleaner paper
5. Finally, oil for cooking.

First step - preparing the CD

Get the cotton and drop some water, start cleaning vertically the surface of CD. Do it 3 times and dry the water with a piece of dry cleaner paper. With a new piece of cotton, drop some oil for cooking and start to wet the surface like you are washing the CD with the oil. Dry carefully now. Some particles of oil will stay on the microsurface of the scrath. It's okay. Seems the oil helps the laser of the CD/DVD driver to read the surface again. Sure this will work with small unreadable scratchs - some hard scratchs loose parts of the surface of the CD where we have data and it's lost forever. But if it is loosed try anyway. Whith this tip 80% of the small scratched CD's coud be

Second Step - testing the CD

With Alcohol 120% make an ISO - image making wizard - and lets see if the app can read the loosed surface. In my case Alcohol 120% had recovered 60% of the data. This is not enough. Have tryed other appz, they do not recover all the data. But the CD/DVD driver laser CAN recover all data in this case. the data is still there, what we do?

Third step - making the new CD

With the main copy system of windows explorer you can do it. Just create one folder with the same name of the CD label for future burn reference, and copy the CD content to the folder. When the CD copy process find the scratch, in majority of the cases, it's slow down the reading and will recover ALL loosed data.If not, it just tell you there's an unreadable sector. In this case your CD is lost. But it's not my case, finally windows explorer got all the data from the scratch and made a copy in the folder. with the ultraISO, wrote the original CD label, drop the content of the folder and save as Iso. You can Test the new CD just mounting the iso in the Alcohol 120%. In my case i did ISO of the two discs from MAX PAYNE 2 and tested installing from the mounted ISO. Works like a charm. I got the 4 mb lost again. So, I have burned the CD and now i have a working copy from the scratched one.

Sounds too bizzarre, but works. Course you can jump the cleaning process and try to copy the content with Windows explorer. But in my case did not work without oil...

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